Anne O. Krueger has been a Professor of International Economics since 2007 at the John Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies. From 2001 to 2004, she served as first deputy managing director at the International Monetary Fund, and briefly in 2004 as its interim director. Before coming to the Fund, Anne Krueger was the Herald L. and Caroline L. Ritch Professor in Humanities and Sciences in the Department of Economics at Stanford University. She was also the founding Director of Stanford's Center for Research on Economic Development and Policy Reform; and a Senior Fellow of the Hoover Institution. Krueger had previously taught at the University of Minnesota and Duke University and, from 1982 to 1986, was the World Bank's Chief Economist. She received her undergraduate degree from Oberlin College and her Ph.D. in economics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Krueger is a Distinguished Fellow and past President of the American Economic Association, a member of the National Academy of Sciences, and a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research.